Thyroid Cancer

Explore advanced thyroid cancer treatment options available in China.

Why going to China for cancer treatment?

Thyroid cancer is a growth of cells that starts in the thyroid. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck, just below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid produces hormones that regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature and weight.

Thyroid cancer might not cause any symptoms at first. But as it grows, it can cause signs and symptoms, such as swelling in your neck, voice changes and difficulty swallowing.

Several types of thyroid cancer exist. Most types grow slowly, though some types can be very aggressive. Most thyroid cancers can be cured with treatment.

Thyroid cancer rates seem to be increasing. The increase may be caused by improved imaging technology that allows health care providers to find small thyroid cancers on CT and MRI scans done for other conditions (incidental thyroid cancers). Thyroid cancers found in this way are usually small cancers that respond well to treatments.


Most thyroid cancers don’t cause any signs or symptoms early in the disease. As thyroid cancer grows, it may cause:

  • A lump (nodule) that can be felt through the skin on your neck
  • A feeling that close-fitting shirt collars are becoming too tight
  • Changes to your voice, including increasing hoarseness
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Swollen lymph nodes in your neck
  • Pain in your neck and throat


Tests and procedures used to diagnose thyroid cancer include:

  • Physical exam. Your health care provider will examine your neck to feel for changes in your thyroid, such as a lump (nodule) in the thyroid. The provider may also ask about your risk factors, such as past exposure to radiation and a family history of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid function blood tests. Tests that measure blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hormones produced by your thyroid gland might give your health care team clues about the health of your thyroid.
  • Ultrasound imaging. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to create pictures of body structures. To create an image of the thyroid, the ultrasound transducer is placed on your lower neck.


    The way a thyroid nodule looks on an ultrasound image helps your provider determine if it’s likely to be cancer. Signs that a thyroid nodule is more likely to be cancerous include calcium deposits (microcalcifications) within the nodule and an irregular border around the nodule. If there’s a high likelihood that a nodule might be cancerous, additional tests are needed to confirm the diagnosis and determine what type of thyroid cancer is present.

    Your provider may also use ultrasound to create images of the lymph nodes in the neck (lymph node mapping) to look for signs of cancer.

  • Removing a sample of thyroid tissue. During a fine-needle aspiration biopsy, your provider inserts a long, thin needle through your skin and into the thyroid nodule. Ultrasound imaging is typically used to precisely guide the needle. Your provider uses the needle to remove some cells from the thyroid. The sample is sent to a lab for analysis.

    In the lab, a doctor who specializes in analyzing blood and body tissue (pathologist) examines the tissue sample under a microscope and determines whether cancer is present. The results aren’t always clear. Some types of thyroid cancer, particularly follicular thyroid cancer and Hurthle cell thyroid cancer, are more likely to have uncertain results (indeterminate thyroid nodules). Your provider may recommend another biopsy procedure or an operation to remove the thyroid nodule for testing. Specialized tests of the cells to look for gene changes (molecular marker testing) also can be helpful.

  • An imaging test that uses a radioactive tracer. A radioactive iodine scan uses a radioactive form of iodine and a special camera to detect thyroid cancer cells in your body. It’s most often used after surgery to find any cancer cells that might remain. This test is most helpful for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers.

    Healthy thyroid cells absorb and use iodine from the blood. Some types of thyroid cancer cells do this, too. When the radioactive iodine is injected in a vein or swallowed, any thyroid cancer cells in the body will take up the iodine. Any cells that take up the iodine are shown on the radioactive iodine scan images.

  • Other imaging tests. You may have one or more imaging tests to help your provider determine whether your cancer has spread beyond the thyroid. Imaging tests may include ultrasound, CT and MRI.
  • Genetic testing. A portion of medullary thyroid cancers are caused by inherited genes that are passed from parents to children. If you’re diagnosed with medullary thyroid cancer, your provider may recommend meeting with a genetic counselor to consider genetic testing. Knowing that you have an inherited gene can help you understand your risk of other types of cancer and what your inherited gene may mean for your children.

Thyroid cancer staging

Your health care team uses information from your tests and procedures to determine the extent of the cancer and assign it a stage. Your cancer’s stage tells your care team about your prognosis and helps them select the treatment that’s most likely to help you.

Cancer stage is indicated with a number between 1 and 4. A lower number usually means the cancer is likely to respond to treatment, and it often means the cancer only involves the thyroid. A higher number means the diagnosis is more serious, and the cancer may have spread beyond the thyroid to other parts of the body.

Different types of thyroid cancer have different sets of stages. For instance, medullary and anaplastic thyroid cancers each have their own set of stages. Differentiated thyroid cancer types, including papillary, follicular, Hurthle cell and poorly differentiated, share a set of stages. For differentiated thyroid cancers, your stage may vary based on your age.


Your thyroid cancer treatment options depend on the type and stage of your thyroid cancer, your overall health, and your preferences.

Most people diagnosed with thyroid cancer have an excellent prognosis, as most thyroid cancers can be cured with treatment.

Treatment may not be needed right away

Treatment might not be needed right away for very small papillary thyroid cancers (papillary microcarcinomas) because these cancers have a low risk of growing or spreading. As an alternative to surgery or other treatments, you might consider active surveillance with frequent monitoring of the cancer. Your health care provider might recommend blood tests and an ultrasound exam of your neck once or twice a year.

In some people, the cancer might never grow and never require treatment. In others, growth may eventually be detected and treatment can begin.


Most people with thyroid cancer that requires treatment will undergo surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid. Which operation your health care team might recommend depends on your type of thyroid cancer, the size of the cancer and whether the cancer has spread beyond the thyroid to the lymph nodes. Your care team also considers your preferences when creating a treatment plan.

Operations used to treat thyroid cancer include:

  • Removing all or most of the thyroid (thyroidectomy). An operation to remove the thyroid gland might involve removing all of the thyroid tissue (total thyroidectomy) or most of the thyroid tissue (near-total thyroidectomy). The surgeon often leaves small rims of thyroid tissue around the parathyroid glands to reduce the risk of damage to the parathyroid glands, which help regulate the calcium levels in your blood.
  • Removing a portion of the thyroid (thyroid lobectomy). During a thyroid lobectomy, the surgeon removes half of the thyroid. Lobectomy might be recommended if you have a slow-growing thyroid cancer in one part of the thyroid, no suspicious nodules in other areas of the thyroid and no signs of cancer in the lymph nodes.
  • Removing lymph nodes in the neck (lymph node dissection). Thyroid cancer often spreads to nearby lymph nodes in the neck. An ultrasound examination of the neck before surgery may reveal signs that cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes. If so, the surgeon may remove some of the lymph nodes in the neck for testing.

To access the thyroid, surgeons usually make a cut (incision) in the lower part of the neck. The size of the incision depends on your situation, such as the type of operation and the size of your thyroid gland. Surgeons usually try to place the incision in a skin fold where it will be difficult to see as it heals and becomes a scar.

Thyroid surgery carries a risk of bleeding and infection. Damage to your parathyroid glands also can occur during surgery, which can lead to low calcium levels in your body.

There’s also a risk that the nerves connected to your vocal cords might not work as expected after surgery, which can cause hoarseness and voice changes. Treatment can improve or reverse nerve problems.

After surgery, you can expect some pain as your body heals. How long it takes to recover will depend on your situation and the type of surgery you had. Most people start to feel recovered in 10 to 14 days. Some restrictions on your activity might continue. For instance, your surgeon might recommend staying away from strenuous activity for a few more weeks.

After surgery to remove all or most of the thyroid, you might have blood tests to see if all of the thyroid cancer has been removed. Tests might measure:

  • Thyroglobulin — a protein made by healthy thyroid cells and differentiated thyroid cancer cells
  • Calcitonin — a hormone made by medullary thyroid cancer cells
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen — a chemical produced by medullary thyroid cancer cells

These blood tests are also used to look for signs of cancer recurrence.

Thyroid hormone therapy

Thyroid hormone therapy is a treatment to replace or supplement the hormones produced in the thyroid. Thyroid hormone therapy medication is usually taken in pill form. It can be used to:

  • Replace thyroid hormones after surgery. If your thyroid is removed completely, you’ll need to take thyroid hormones for the rest of your life to replace the hormones your thyroid made before your operation. This treatment replaces your natural hormones, so there shouldn’t be any side effects once your health care team finds the dose that’s right for you.

    You might also need thyroid hormone replacement after having surgery to remove part of the thyroid, but not everyone does. If your thyroid hormones are too low after surgery (hypothyroidism), your health care team might recommend thyroid hormones.

  • Suppress the growth of thyroid cancer cells. Higher doses of thyroid hormone therapy can suppress the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from your brain’s pituitary gland. TSH can cause thyroid cancer cells to grow. High doses of thyroid hormone therapy might be recommended for aggressive thyroid cancers.

Radioactive iodine

Radioactive iodine treatment uses a form of iodine that’s radioactive to kill thyroid cells and thyroid cancer cells that might remain after surgery. It’s most often used to treat differentiated thyroid cancers that have a risk of spreading to other parts of the body.

You might have a test to see if your cancer is likely to be helped by radioactive iodine, since not all types of thyroid cancer respond to this treatment. Differentiated thyroid cancer types, including papillary, follicular and Hurthle cell, are more likely to respond. Anaplastic and medullary thyroid cancers usually aren’t treated with radioactive iodine.

Radioactive iodine treatment comes as a capsule or liquid that you swallow. The radioactive iodine is taken up primarily by thyroid cells and thyroid cancer cells, so there’s a low risk of harming other cells in your body.

Which side effects you experience will depend on the dose of radioactive iodine you receive. Higher doses may cause:

  • Dry mouth
  • Mouth pain
  • Eye inflammation
  • Altered sense of taste or smell

Most of the radioactive iodine leaves your body in your urine in the first few days after treatment. You’ll be given instructions for precautions you need to take during that time to protect other people from the radiation. For instance, you may be asked to temporarily avoid close contact with other people, especially children and pregnant women.

Injecting alcohol into cancers

Alcohol ablation, which is also called ethanol ablation, involves using a needle to inject alcohol into small areas of thyroid cancer. Ultrasound imaging is used to precisely guide the needle. The alcohol causes the thyroid cancer cells to shrink.

Alcohol ablation may be an option to treat small areas of thyroid cancer, such as cancer that’s found in a lymph node after surgery. Sometimes it’s an option if you aren’t healthy enough for surgery.

Treatments for advanced thyroid cancers

Aggressive thyroid cancers that grow more quickly may require additional treatment options to control the disease. Options might include:

  • Targeted drug therapy. Targeted drug treatments focus on specific chemicals present within cancer cells. By blocking these chemicals, targeted drug treatments can cause cancer cells to die. Some of these treatments come in pill form and some are given through a vein.

    There are many different targeted therapy drugs for thyroid cancer. Some target the blood vessels that cancer cells make to bring nutrients that help the cells survive. Other drugs target specific gene changes. Your provider may recommend special tests of your cancer cells to see which treatments might help. Side effects will depend on the specific drug you take.

  • Radiation therapy. External beam radiation uses a machine that aims high-energy beams, such as X-rays and protons, to precise points on your body to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy might be recommended if your cancer doesn’t respond to other treatments or if it comes back. Radiation therapy can help control pain caused by cancer that spreads to the bones. Radiation therapy side effects depend on where the radiation is aimed. If it’s aimed at the neck, side effects might include a sunburn-like reaction on the skin, a cough and painful swallowing.
  • Chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is a drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. There are many different chemotherapy drugs that can be used alone or in combination. Some come in pill form, but most are given through a vein. Chemotherapy may help control fast-growing thyroid cancers, such as anaplastic thyroid cancer. In certain situations, chemotherapy might be used for other types of thyroid cancer. Sometimes chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy. Chemotherapy side effects depend on the specific drugs you receive.
  • Destroying cancer cells with heat and cold. Thyroid cancer cells that spread to the lungs, liver and bones can be treated with heat and cold to kill the cancer cells. Radiofrequency ablation uses electrical energy to heat up cancer cells, causing them to die. Cryoablation uses a gas to freeze and kill cancer cells. These treatments can help control small areas of cancer cells.

Supportive (palliative) care

Palliative care is specialized medical care that focuses on providing relief from pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care specialists work with you, your family and your health care team to provide an extra layer of support that complements your ongoing care.

Palliative care can be used while undergoing other aggressive treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Increasingly, palliative care is being offered early in the course of cancer treatment.

When palliative care is used along with all of the other appropriate treatments, people with cancer may feel better, have a better quality of life and live longer.

Palliative care is provided by a team of doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Palliative care teams aim to improve quality of life for people with cancer and their families.

Follow-up tests for thyroid cancer survivors

After your thyroid cancer treatment ends, your provider may recommend follow-up tests and procedures to look for signs that your cancer has returned. You may have follow-up appointments once or twice a year for several years after treatment ends.

Which tests you need will depend on your situation. Follow-up tests may include:

  • Physical exam of your neck
  • Blood tests
  • Ultrasound exam of your neck
  • Other imaging tests, such as CT and MRI

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