Lung Cancer Treatment Options

Explore advanced colon cancer treatment options available in China.

Why going to China for cancer treatment?

Colon cancer treatment usually involves surgery to remove the cancer. Your health care team might recommend other treatments, such as radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Your treatment options depend on the cancer’s location and its stage. Your overall health and your preference will be considered when creating a treatment plan.

Surgery for early-stage colon cancer

Treatment for a very small colon cancer might be a minimally invasive approach to surgery, such as:

  • Removing polyps during a colonoscopy, called a polypectomy. If the cancer is contained within a polyp, removing the polyp may remove all of the cancer.
  • Endoscopic mucosal resection. This procedure can remove larger polyps during colonoscopy. Special tools help remove the polyp and a small amount of the lining of the colon.
  • Minimally invasive surgery, called laparoscopic surgery. This type of surgery can remove polyps that can’t be removed during a colonoscopy. In this procedure, a surgeon performs the operation through several small cuts called incisions in the abdominal wall. Instruments with attached cameras go through the cuts and show the colon on a video monitor. The surgeon also may take samples from lymph nodes in the area around the cancer.

Surgery for more advanced colon cancer

If the cancer has grown into or through the colon, a surgeon might recommend:

  • Partial colectomy. Surgery to remove part of the colon is called partial colectomy. During this procedure, the surgeon removes the part of the colon that has the cancer. The surgeon also takes some tissue on either side of the cancer. It’s often possible to reconnect the healthy portions of the colon or rectum. This procedure can often be done by a minimally invasive approach called laparoscopy.
  • Surgery to create a way for waste to leave the body. Sometimes it’s not possible to reconnect the healthy portions of the colon or rectum after colectomy. The surgeon creates an opening in the wall of the abdomen from a portion of what’s left of the intestine. This procedure, called an ostomy, allows stool to leave the body by emptying into a bag that fits over the opening.

    Sometimes the ostomy is only for a short time to let the colon or rectum heal after surgery. Then it’s reversed. Sometimes the ostomy can’t be reversed and stays for life.

  • Lymph node removal. Nearby lymph nodes are usually removed during colon cancer surgery and tested for cancer.

Surgery for advanced cancer

When it’s not possible to remove the cancer with surgery, a surgeon might try to relieve symptoms rather than cure the cancer. This surgery can remove colon blockages and ease symptoms, such as bleeding or pain.

Sometimes the cancer has spread only to the liver or lung in someone who is otherwise healthy. Surgery or other localized treatments might remove the cancer. Chemotherapy might be used before or after this type of procedure. This approach provides a chance to be free of cancer over the long term.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy uses strong medicines to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy for colon cancer is usually given after surgery if the cancer is large or has spread to the lymph nodes. Chemotherapy can kill cancer cells that might be left after surgery. This helps reduce the risk of the cancer coming back.

Chemotherapy might also be used before surgery to shrink a large cancer so that it’s easier to remove.

Chemotherapy also can be used to relieve symptoms of colon cancer that can’t be removed with surgery or that has spread to other areas of the body. Sometimes it’s used with radiation therapy.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy uses powerful energy beams to kill cancer cells. The energy can come from X-rays, protons or other sources.

Radiation therapy can shrink a large cancer before an operation to make it easier to remove. When surgery isn’t an option, radiation therapy might be used to relieve symptoms, such as pain. Some people have radiation and chemotherapy at the same time.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy uses medicines that attack certain chemicals in cancer cells. By blocking these chemicals, targeted treatments can cause cancer cells to die.

Targeted therapy is usually combined with chemotherapy. Targeted therapy is typically used for people with advanced colon cancer.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy is a treatment with medicine that helps the body’s immune system kill cancer cells. The immune system fights off diseases by attacking germs and other cells that shouldn’t be in the body. Cancer cells survive by hiding from the immune system. Immunotherapy helps the immune system cells find and kill the cancer cells.

Immunotherapy is usually reserved for advanced colon cancer.

Palliative care

Palliative care is a special type of health care that focuses on relieving pain and other symptoms of a serious illness. Palliative care is done by a team of health care professionals. The team can include doctors, nurses and other specially trained professionals. Their goal is to improve the quality of life for people with serious illness and their families.

Palliative care is an extra layer of support during cancer treatment. When palliative care is used with all other appropriate treatments, people with cancer may feel better and live longer.

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